Most of the nation’s coffee ends up on the arabica commodities market, where world overproduction has kept prices low. However, there are many unique circumstances surrounding specialty coffee production in Ethiopia that actually make GI registrations less suitable than other forms of intellectual property (IP) protection. At first glance, registration of each Ethiopian coffee as a geographical indication (GI) might seem to be the best course of action. Native tribes would grind the coffee cherries together, mixing the paste with animal fat. The high profile dispute with Starbucks increased the popularity of Ethiopian coffee. This was overcome by support from law firms which agreed to provide their services pro bono. From these ninth-century highlands Arabica coffee beans began their long journey from Ethiopia to the rest of the world. Origins in Africa. The umbrella brand for Ethiopian coffee “You have to understand the situation in Ethiopia,” Mr. Mengistie of EIPO explained. Sun-Dried Ethiopia Haile Estate coffee appeared at the Reserve Roastery in late January, early February time frame. The novelty of the Initiative is that it enabled the growers and producers to become part of price setters instead of being price takers. The licensing strategy is expected to boost consumer recognition of Ethiopian coffee trademarks and facilitate the growth of the demand for Ethiopian fine coffees. Used to indicate the regional origin of a particular product, a GI registration must demonstrate a link between a characteristic of the product and the region where it is produced. As of early 2020, the company operates over 30,000 locations worldwide in more than 70 countries. Indeed, coffee is closely tied to the culture and society of Ethiopia and an estimated 15 million people are directly or indirectly involved in the Ethiopian coffee industry. The media coverage had the effect of greatly increasing public knowledge of, and interest in, Ethiopia’s coffees. Government oversight of coffee producers is therefore nearly impossible. Our tribute to coffee history. In 2004, the government launched the Ethiopian Coffee Trademarking and Licensing Initiative (the Initiative) to provide a practical solution to overcome the longstanding divide between what coffee farmers receive for a sack of their beans and what retailers charge for that coffee when they sell it in retail outlets in different countries. Ethiopian Coffee History . Intrigued, he tried some of the berries, and soon knew why his goats were dancing about. The Stakeholder Committee therefore opted for a trademark-based solution, with the Ethiopian government as the owner of these marks. Purchasing this coffee helps support Ethiopian coffee farmers… and in 2004, Oxfam worked with Starbucks to lessen poverty in coffee farming communities. This case study is based on information from: Madrid – The International Trademark System, Lisbon – The International System of Geographical Indications, Budapest – The International Microorganism Deposit System, Centralized Access to Search and Examination (CASE), SCCR - Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, SCP - Standing Committee on the Law of Patents, SCT - Standing Committee on the Law of Trademarks, IGC - Intergovernmental Committee on IP & GR, TK & Folklore, https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2007/05/article_0001.html, https://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=130155, https://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/sme/en/wipo_smes_dar_09/wipo_smes_dar_09_topic_07_1.pdf, https://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/sme/en/wipo_smes_rom_09/wipo_smes_rom_09_o_workshop09_4-related1.pdf, http://www.lightyearsip.net/downloads/Distinctive_values_in_African_exports.pdf#page=15, http://www.nai.uu.se/publications/electronic_publ/notes_trade3.pdf, http://www.luc.edu/law/activities/publications/ilrdocs/vol6_no2/pdf/vol6_issue2.pdf, https://www.wipo.int/academy/en/ipacademies/educational_materials/cs4_sidamo.pdf, Ethiopian Fine Coffee Stakeholder Committee. If each Ethiopian specialty coffee were registered as a GI it would have to be produced in a specific area of the country under specific circumstances. A Brief History of Coffee: Goats, Roosevelt, and Starbucks. Ethiopian coffee is rich with original flavor and aroma because of the geographical (altitude, soil, temperature, rainfall, topography, ecology), genotypic and cultural variety within the country. Oxfam says Starbucks has used the American legal system to block an Ethiopian plan to gain more control over its coffee trade and better earnings for coffee farmers living in poverty. Customers can sample Ethiopia coffee at participating Starbucks stores in the United States on National Coffee Day, Sept. 29, and those who purchase a 1-pound bag of the new coffee will receive a commemorative Ethiopia … The Initiative has helped Ethiopia to differentiate Ethiopian coffees from coffees of other countries, which strengthened the confidence and bargaining position of the coffee growers and exporters of the country. Absolutely—only the packaging is different. The Ethiopian Coffee Trademarking and Licensing Initiative set a new dimension in the buyer-seller relationship. In the past 40 years alone, they have had three forms of government, from a militaristic Marxist ideology to the federal system today. Ethiopian Coffee; Ethiopian Coffee: Origin and History; Ethiopia is known for its diverse topography with altitudes ranging from around 100 meters below sea level in the Danakil depression to 4,600 meters above sea level in the Semien mountains. Africa . Coffee shops abound in Ethiopia's cities and towns; beans are still bought green and roasted at home. Origins of Ethiopia Coffee. Add this limited edition Starbucks Card to your collection! Starbucks honors the birthplace of coffee with the global introduction of Ethiopia, an enchanting single-origin steeped in history and flavor. It was well known that his goats jumped higher and ran faster than any other goats. As Mr. Mengistie explained, “setting up a certification system would have been impracticable and too expensive.”. In the past 40 years alone, they have had three forms of government, from a militaristic Marxist ideology to the federal system today. Born in the birthplace of coffee, Alemu Bukato began his coffee journey at a young age. View fullsize. This African nation enjoys a strong reputation for its heritage coffees which command a very high retail price in the international market. “The theory is: make the pie bigger. This coffee is born of a collaboration between Starbucks and Ethiopian coffee farmers that started in 2005. Medium Roast, 250g. Melody Overton. Ethiopians believe that the coffee origin story can be traced back to Ethiopia, and that the local goat herder was the one to discover the priced coffee berries. Seeking to narrow down this gap between the retail price and the return to the producers, the Ethiopian government is trying to use a range of intellectual property rights (IPRs) to differentiate their coffee in the market place and achieve higher returns. With its rich heritage and outstanding quality, Ethiopian coffee is among the best in the world. However, some believe that coffee … Of course, not everyone believes that coffee berries were first found in Ethiopia, since there is no historical record of it. Oxfam says Starbucks is depriving farmers in Ethiopia of $90m a year by opposing the Ethiopian government's efforts to trademark three types of local coffee bean. The Initiative has created the momentum for change and bears the potential to offer more feasible ways to improve the commercial prospects and financial returns for marginal producers of coffee or other similar commodities. The grounds for opposition in both cases were that the names had become too generic a description of coffee, and as such were not eligible for registration under United States trademark law. Processing: Washed. Starbucks Reserve® Ethiopia Gedeb. © 2019 Starbucks Coffee Company. The Initiative also intended to generate high retail prices for Harrar, Sidamo and Yirgacheffe – the three most famous coffee brands of Ethiopia. Coffee makes us severe, and grave and philosophical “Jonathan Swift, 1722” Possibly the cradle of mankind, now called Ethiopia, is the birthplace of coffee. This dispersal however did not immediately translate into wider usage and even in the fifteenth century Constantinople coffee drinking was actually forbidden as its stimulating effects were considered as being sinful. Distribution is also a problem, as it is predominately done informally by hauling bags of coffee on foot for many kilometers. For example, a GI for Sidamo coffee would require every bag of Sidamo to be produced, processed or prepared in the Sidamo region and have a special quality that is directly dependent on the unique properties of the region. After finishing school, he rented a wet mill and started experimenting with processing in Ethiopia’s coffee-rich Kochere zone. The story goes that a 9 th century goat herder named Kaldi noticed their stimulating effects on his goats and began experimenting. The trademarking and licensing scheme immensely helped improve the situation: Yirgacheffe farmers’ income doubled in 2007 in comparison with their income in 2006, with estimation that over the years the producers could secure their income at around US $6-8 per kilogram. History of Coffee. The purpose of licensing, according to Mr. Mengistie, is “to secure recognition from the coffee distribution industry that Ethiopia owns and controls the use of trademarks, thereby building the reputation and good will of its specialty coffees around the trademarks.” The government of Ethiopia wanted its coffee to have more market visibility so that the export premium for Ethiopian specialty coffee could be raised. Prior to the IP protection initiative, Ethiopia was receiving a scanty 6 percent of the final retail price for its coffees. Artistically-designed logos for each of the brand names were also created. The Story of Ethiopia Single-Origin On the ancient slopes flanking Africa’s Great Rift Valley, coffee trees first emerged from the rich, volcanic soil. It was well known that his goats jumped higher and ran faster than any other goats. Oxfam accused Starbucks of asking the US coffee trade body, the National Coffee Association (NCA), to block Ethiopia's bid to trademark the three types of beans in the US. The native (undomesticated) origin of coffee … The History of Ethiopian Coffee. Trademarks for Ethiopian coffees are also registered in the European Union and Canada. A GI also requires that the government oversee producers and distributors to guarantee that the coffees sold belong to a particular style or region, such as Sidamo. The US retailer will market, distribute and, in some cases, license Ethiopia's range of high-quality coffee brands. Want to learn more about the Starbucks Card? There, legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans. In Japan, registration certificates have been secured for two of the coffees (Yirgacheffe and Sidamo). (Photo: WIPO/EM), The EIPO took the leadership of the Initiative and began working on identifying a mechanism which would lead to a greater share for the country’s coffee growers. In Sidamo, most coffee is processed using the washed method. Some of the world’s finest coffees, such as Harrar®, Sidamo® and Yirgacheffee®, originate in Ethiopia. Starbucks in Ethiopia coffee vow Coffee is a vital source of income for Ethiopia. Our tribute to the birthplace of coffee. In wealthy countries, a cup of cappuccino may be sold at US$ 4, but many coffee growers in Ethiopia and other developing countries earn less than a dollar a day. 1st Jan 1970 Marketing Reference this Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Starbucks was established in 1971 by three local businessmen to sell high quality whole beans coffee. An exquisite blend with a reverence for the ritual of coffee, honoring Ethiopia’s bountiful legacy. However, this is not a practical solution for Ethiopia. After acquiring the trademarks, Ethiopia initiated a royalty-free licensing scheme. This was seen as a more direct route of protection because it would grant the government of Ethiopia the legal right to exploit, license and use the trademarked names in relation to coffee goods to the exclusion of all other traders. Producers of primary goods in many developing countries often receive only marginal returns. Our tribute to coffee history. Velvety and floral, with peppery spice notes. Today our master roasters have created an entirely new way to experience these treasured beans. The significance of the Initiative is likely to go not only beyond the coffee trade, but also beyond the borders of Ethiopia. Today our master roasters have created an entirely new way to experience these treasured beans. “I learned from the coffee farmers' cooperatives and exporters just three months ago that the price of Yirgacheffe had already increased by $ 0.60 cents to $ 2 a pound.”. The EIPO filed rebuttals against the USPTO decisions with supporting evidence to demonstrate that the terms Harrar and Sidamo had acquired distinctiveness. While managing the Starbucks in Croydon North End, two of my Ethiopian staff asked if they could perform a traditional Ethiopian coffee ceremony. Setting up a certification system would have been impracticable and too expensive. Starbucks Card Terms of Use and Agreement. The American coffee chain Starbucks Coffee Corporation, which was widely reported in the media to have been a driving force behind the NCA objection, publicly offered to assist the EIPO in setting up a national system of certification marks to enable the farmers to protect and market their coffee as “robust” geographical indications. The trademark strategy for Ethiopian coffee faced a major difficulty in 2006. This strategy will ensure that Ethiopian farmers and small businessmen secure a reasonable return from the sale of their coffees. Starbucks denied initiating the opposition to the trademark application, insisting it was a NCA decision. It’s not a predictable or forgiving bean, and the roasting process needs constant monitoring. # 1: Ethiopia is where coffee was first discovered. Some 15 million people in Ethiopia depend on the coffee sector, which generates 60 percent of the country's wealth. Coffee Day also marks the long history of the drink: the properties of coffee beans are thought to have first been discovered in Ethiopia.The beans are actually the pits found in the coffee berry or cherry. The story goes that a 9 th century goat herder named Kaldi noticed their stimulating effects on his goats and began experimenting. This, in addition to variations in bean size, makes it tricky to roast them without losing their delicate and nuanced flavours. “Yes,” acknowledges Mr. Mengistie, “designation is used here as a broader term than trademark, to encompass some of the trademarks that are still pending registration. On the ancient slopes flanking Africa's Great Rift Valley, coffee trees first emerged from the rich, volcanic soil. Immediately after the resolution of the dispute, the stakeholders of Ethiopian coffee focused their attention on the need for a marketing strategy. Information on the Initiative as well as licensing is made publicly available through a dedicated website. 34, chemin des Colombettes Our tribute to coffee history. According to Wiki, The origin and history of coffee dates back to the 10th century, and possibly earlier with a number of reports and legends surrounding its first use. Starbucks Day of Action: 16 December 2006. The designations, they argued, referred not to geographical locations but to distinctive coffee types. 1354 words (5 pages) Essay. A Single-Origin Coffee Unlike Anything in Starbucks 42-Year History, Ethiopia is Masterfully Roasted for an Exquisite Taste Experience. Whether or not we believe there are kernels of truth in the legend of Kaldi and other stories about how coffee brewing was born, with archangels, whirling dervishes, and ghosts, there is a virtual certainty that the coffee plant originated in Ethiopia. There, legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the potential of these beloved beans. History of coffee: From Ethiopia, Yemen – To the world. In August 2006, the USPTO informed the EIPO that their rebuttal in the case of Harar had been successful. It’s about coffee. The rest of coffee’s history in Ethiopia is quite turbulent. Of all the coffee-producing countries, Ethiopia is the only one that has a higher domestic consumption rate than export rate. “Rather than focusing on short term gain, this way we can enlist the big companies to do what we don’t have the skills or financial means for – that is, building recognition of our brands in international markets and so increasing long term demand for them.”. Starbucks vs. Ethiopia The country that gave the world the coffee bean and the company that invented the $4 latte are fighting over a trademark, says Fortune's Stephan Faris. Ethiopia. The Story of Ethiopia Single-Origin The Initiative is organized and run by the Ethiopian Fine Coffee Stakeholder Committee (the Stakeholder Committee) – a consortium comprising cooperatives, private exporters and the Ethiopian Intellectual Property Office (EIPO) as well as other concerned government bodies. In 2006 Starbucks purchased fewer than 10 million pounds of coffee from those regions, the equivalent of 2 to 3 percent of the company’s worldwide coffee purchases and a relatively small percentage of Ethiopia’s total coffee exports. SEATTLE–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Starbucks Coffee Company (NASDAQ:SBUX) today introduces a new single-origin coffee from the birthplace of coffee, Ethiopia. The EIPO has filed applications for trademark registrations of these three coffees in a number of other countries including Australia, Brazil, China, Saudi Arabia and South Africa. And when we talk about coffee, one thing that definitely comes to any coffee lover’s mind is ‘Starbucks’- one of the world’s finest coffee. Posted in Celebrations, Daily life, History, Out and about, tagged coffee ceremony in Ethiopia, coffee trademarks, Ethiopian coffee, Kaldi's, Starbucks and Ethiopian coffee, the legend of Kaldi on May 30, 2012| 4 Comments » A trademark for Sidamo was also granted in February 2008. Starbucks Reserve® Ethiopia Gedeb Born in the birthplace of coffee, Alemu Bukato began his coffee journey at a young age. This exquisite blend is our tribute to the birthplace of coffee. This strategy gave the Ethiopian government greater and more effective control over the distribution of its product, which ultimately increases revenue by exporting more goods, enabling a rise in prices and benefits to farmers. Starbucks will soon be introducing a new single-origin Ethiopian coffee into their core lineup, officially beginning in October. The key strategy, the Stakeholder Committee agreed, was to achieve wider recognition of the distinctive qualities of Ethiopian coffees as brands and so position them strategically in the expanding specialty coffee market; while at the same time to protect Ethiopia’s ownership of the names so as to prevent their misappropriation. Starbucks is a global coffee giant, which was founded in 1971 as a local coffee bean retailer.Headquartered in Seattle, the company is now the world’s biggest coffeehouse chain, comprising of approximately 20,891 stores in 62 countries. Ethiopia is the birthplace of coffee and one of the world’s top coffee producers and consumers. Ethiopia, moreover, is not a member of the Madrid system for the international registration of marks. The coffee is produced mainly in Harar, Sidamo, Yirgacheffe and Limu. Getachew Mengistie outlines Ethiopia’s Fine Coffee Trademarking and Licensing Initiative at WIPO’s 2007 GI Symposium. Coffee grown worldwide can trace its heritage back centuries to the ancient coffee forests on the Ethiopian plateau. Starbucks insisted, however, that it was committed to paying premium prices to producers in more than 27 countries and its purchases of Ethiopian coffee had grown by … Rolled into little balls, the mixture was used to give warriors energy for battle. The History And Introduction To Starbucks Coffee Marketing Essay. It is not related to certification.”. Let the market pay,” explained Mr. Getachew Mengistie, former Director General of the EIPO. An exquisite blend with a reverence for the ritual of coffee, honoring Ethiopia‘s bountiful legacy. CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, Some of the world’s finest coffees originate in Ethiopia (Photo: WIPO/RES/DEV/GE/09/WWW[130155]). On 26 October 2006, Oxfam accused Starbucks of asking the National Coffee Association (NCA) to block a US trademark application from Ethiopia for three of the country's coffee beans, Sidamo, Harar and Yirgacheffe. The story goes that that Kaldi discovered coffee after he noticed that after eating the berries from a certain tree, his goats became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night. These changes have had marked positive results in terms of increased income and improved living standards of the coffee producers. Therefore the very nature of coffee production in Ethiopia makes GI certification difficult and impractical. However, only 5 to 10 percent of the retail price actually goes back to Ethiopia; most of the profit is shared by distributors and middlemen in the marketing sector. Coffee has been growing in Ethiopia for thousands of years, in the forests of southwestern highlands. 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